Passenger Coaches

The AXTONE Group offers crash buffers, for freight cars as well as passenger railway vehicles and locomotives.

In accordance with RID and UIC (sheet 573) regulations, tank cars used to transport of specific dangerous goods must be equipped with buffers capable (in case of a collision) of absorbing much higher amounts of energy than conventional buffers. The minimum level of absorbed energy is diversified, for newly constructed wagons it is 400kJ while for those wagons currently in use this level is min. 250 kJ. Additional crash buffers are responsible for absorbing the energy of a collision, and as a result of a collision suffer irreversible deformation.

The European standard EN 15227 in effect since January 1st 2008 defines the collision safety requirements for railway wagon bodies. The standard applies for locomotives, passenger trains, underground train wagons and tramways. The AXTONE Group’s crash buffers based on various energy absorption technologies.

Peeling technology, based on the plastic deformation of a metal stream cut from the outside surface of the buffer body. The main advantages of this solution include a low level of forces during collisions, stable operation and a possibility of precise determination of the crash module’s release time. In addition, by increasing the cross-section cut out, it is possible to raise the amount of energy absorbed depending on the customer’s needs. The weight of such a buffer is comparable to the weight of a typical category C buffer.

Crash-buffers

Folding technology – energy absorption is controlled by plastic deformation of the buffer plunger with specially shaped sleeve walls. The level of the absorbed energy depends on the deformation forces. By changing the shape of the sleeve a broad range of controlled parameters is obtained that can be modified in the Crash buffers in accordance with the individual requirements of the customers.

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Products manufactured in peeling technology can be used when free space is available behind the wagon headstock. Buffers with folding technology do not require free space behind the wagon headstock.

The offer includes standard crash buffers as well as those dedicated to individual projects. The range in this segment is constantly evolving.

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KX-ZP5 Buffer

A light rail-vehicle buffer that meets the requirements of the EN15551 standard, the UIC 528 leaflet as well as the related leaflets (except the buffer disk size). The shock absorber unit consists of the preliminary absorber featuring disk springs and the main elastomer shock absorber. Both solutions have already proved their infallibility and functional reliability during many years of operation. The buffer is characterized by good working parameters and operational reliability within the temperature range from -40ºC to +50ºC. Free-flowing elastomer retains its properties for many years. The material is also recyclable.

 KX-ZP5

Technical documentation

KX-ZP2 Buffer

A passenger car buffer that meets the requirements of the EN15551 standard, the UIC 528 leaflet as well as the related leaflets. The buffer is characterized by good working parameters and operational reliability within the temperature range from -40ºC to +50ºC The buffer disk’s surface is hardened. High durability of the buffer has been confirmed by the operating tests conducted in accordance with the ERRI B51 guidelines. It has the EBA and Railway Transport Office certificates.

zderzak-KX-ZP2

Technical documentation

Keystone ES110 Buffer

A buffer for passenger car equipped with a combigard ES110 hydraulic shock absorber. The product meets the requirements of the EN 15551 standard and the UIC 528 leaflet as well as the related leaflets. The buffer is characterized by good working parameters and operational reliability within the temperature range from -40ºC to +50ºC. The buffer is available in in the following variants: a buffer disk with a plastic pad a disk without the plastic pad, as well as 360x660 and 360x720 disks. The buffer disk with a plastic insert extends the buffer’s service life and reduces the operating costs. The main advantage of this buffer is the simple structure which guarantees long usage and minimum scope of regular maintenance. The product has the EBA certificate.

keystone15kj_s110_es110_asm_2 Keystone S110 Buffer

A buffer for assenger car equipped with a shock absorber featuring elastic components made of solid elastomer. The product meets the requirements of the EN 15551 standard and the UIC 528 leaflet as well as the related leaflets. The buffer is characterized by good working parameters and operational reliability within the temperature range from -40ºC to +50ºC. The buffer is available in in the following variants: a buffer disk with a plastic pad a disk without the plastic pad, as well as 360x660 and 360x720 disks. The buffer disk with a plastic insert extends the buffer’s service life and reduces the operating costs. The main advantage of this buffer is the simple structure which guarantees long usage and minimum scope of regular maintenance. The product has the EBA certificate.

keystone15kj_s110_es110_asm_2

Technical documentation

Keystone 15 kJ buffer with friction spring

A buffer for passenger car equipped with a set of friction springs. The product meets the requirements of the EN 15551 standard and the UIC 528 leaflet, as well as the related leaflets. The buffer is characterized by good working parameters and operational reliability within the temperature range from -40ºC to +50ºC. It is manufactured in two options: a buffer disk including a plastic pad and a disk without a pad. The buffer disk with a plastic pad extends the buffer’s service life and reduces the operating costs. The main advantage of this buffer is the simple structure which guarantees long usage and minimum scope of regular maintenance. The product has the EBA certificate.

keystone15kj_s110_es110_asm_2

Technical documentation

RG 20F Draw-Gear

The RG20F draw-gear is designed for passenger cars. It meets the requirements of the EN 15566 standard, as well as the UIC 567-3, UIC 520 leaflet, and enables absorbing energy up to 20 kJ. The draw-gear is equipped with elastic components made of the EuroPad solid elastomer ensuring premium technical parameters (available also with TecsPak). The EuroPads are made of the finest quality materials which maintain their characteristics for many years. The material is also recyclable. Due to its compact structure, the device has relatively low weight. The draw gear has good working parameters and operational reliability within the temperature range from -40°C to +50°C. The product has EBA certificate.

RG 15F Draw-Gear

The draw gear type RG15 is designed for passenger cars .It meets the requirements of the EN 15566 standard, as well as UIC 567-3, UIC 520 leaflets, and enables absorbing energy up to 15 kJ. The draw-gear is equipped with elastic components made of the EuroPad solid elastomer ensuring premium technical parameters (available also with TecsPak). The EuroPads are made of the finest quality materials which maintain their characteristics for many years. The material is also recyclable. Due to its compact structure, the device has relatively low weight. The draw-gear has good working parameters and operational reliability within the range of temperatures from -40°C to +50°C. The product has EBA certificate.

RG 15F

Technical documentation

KX-AM-3 Draw-Gear

The KX-AM-3 draw-gear is designed for passnger cars. It meets the requirements of the EN 15566 standard, as well as the UIC 520 leaflet, and  ensures energy absorption of 20 kJ. The device is equipped with elastic components made of the EuroPad solid elastomer ensuring premium technical parameters. The elastomer pads are made of the finest quality materials which maintain their characteristics for many years. The material is also recyclable. Due to its compact structure, the device has relatively low weight. The draw-gear has good working parameters and operational reliability within the temperature range from -40°C to +50°C. It has the Rail Transport Office and TSI certificates.

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Technical documentation

Elastomer shock absorber designed for central couplers of passenger cars. It all the requirements of chinese standards. KX-CHP shock absorber has good working parameters and operational reliability within the required range of temperatures. The free-flowing elastomer maintains its properties for many years. The material is also recyclable. The shock absorber’s technical parameters meet the most demanding requirements of the clients, thus it can be used in the heaviest duty applications - currently it is used in a train on the Golmud – Lhasa route at the altitude of 5000 m above mean sea level.kx chp shock absorber

Technical documenation

In passenger coaches coil springs are used as primary suspension and in most applications also as secondary suspension. Due to space and load requirements regarding the primary springs, linear spring sets are usually used. Linear coil spring means a cylindrical coil spring with constant diameter and constant wire diameter. The spring ends are either “closed and ground” or “taper rolled, closed and ground”.

Linear spring set means that two linear coil springs with the same length are put together one into the other. Therefore the inner spring has a smaller outer diameter than the inner diameter of the outer spring. The inner spring also has a smaller wire diameter. The two springs of one set must have different coiling directions (one left, one right hand coiled).

The coil springs used in the secondary suspension of passenger coaches are either single linear coil springs or linear spring sets. As the lateral deflections are quite high, the springs must have a bigger length than primary springs. The direction of the lateral displacement under vertical load (“chasse”) is marked on the springs and they have to be mounted into the vehicle according to the correct orientation of this marking.

As the strain (load amplitudes and their frequency) of the springs is also depending on the speed of the train, which for passenger trains is usually higher than for freight trains, the springs for passenger coaches require a high material grade and production quality.

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Ring-Springs

Production of rings used for friction springs which meet the requirements of the chart UIC 827-2 takes place in the Czech company owned by the Group. The springs are manufactured in a wide range of various diameters from 80 to 400 mm. The rings are used in friction springs of Ringfeder type applied in buffers, tractive apparatuses, pull rod bars and automatic couplers.

Features:

  • Hot formed, highest quality materials;
  • Various shapes possible;
  • Linear characteristic;
  • Safe against overloading;
  • Big damping due to friction;
  • Characteristic independent of the speed;
  • Characteristic independent of the temperature;
  • Proven in rail applications.

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Basic technical dates of friction springs:
F Spring terminal force d1 Inner diameter
Se Stroke for 1 element b/2 Half ring width
We Spring work for 1 element D2 Guide outer diameter
he Height of 1 element d2 Guide inner diameter
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Example of spring calculation

  • This spring consists of 4 elements type 19600:
  • End force = 600 kN
  • Stroke = 4 x 4,4 (Se ) = 17,6 mm
  • Spring work (Absorbed energy) = 4 x 1300 (We) = 5200 J
  • Spring length = 4 x 23,4 (he) = 93,6 mm

By adding additional elements, we increase the stroke (length of the spring), the absorbed energy (spring work) but the end force will remain the same. End force still 600 kN.

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During the operation of the friction spring two thirds of the input energy is dissipated as frictional heat. The recoil force at any point on the diagram is approximately equal 1 / 3 of the relative compressive force F. The capacity of the spring is represented by the total area shown below the load curve.

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Friction springs are generally designed to „block”, so it is therefore ensured that the admissible stresses cannot be exceeded and the friction spring will not be damaged.

Applications:

  • Buffers;
  • Draw gears;
  • Draw bars;
  • (Semi) automatic couplers .